An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a crucial piece of equipment in any energy system, particularly in Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS). Given their importance in providing reliable, continuous power, any disruption or failure in the BESS can have significant consequences. Hence, a UPS is critical in ensuring the system's smooth operation, minimising downtime, and protecting sensitive equipment from damage.
The function of a UPS is to provide instantaneous, emergency power to a load when the input power source fails. It achieves this through a secondary power source, usually battery power. The inclusion of a UPS in a BESS container ensures that critical components and communication equipment continue to function, even in the event of a power disruption.
In a BESS container, a 3kVA UPS would typically be provided to cater to the auxiliary requirements of critical and communication equipment. This capacity should be sufficient to power the equipment in the event of a primary power source failure. It should also have enough capacity to provide power for up to an hour, ensuring that there is ample time to restore the primary power source or implement alternative power solutions.
The UPS distribution board (UPS DB) is designed to distribute the backup power from the UPS to the various critical components within the BESS container. These components typically include:
1. **Rack Control Circuit**: This is a crucial part of the BESS, controlling the operation of the battery racks. It monitors the performance of the batteries and manages their charging and discharging. A disruption to the rack control circuit could lead to a failure in managing the battery operation, potentially leading to battery damage or inefficient operation.
2. **MBMU (Master Battery Management Unit)**: The MBMU monitors the battery state, calculates secondary data, implements safety protection, and balances cells. As such, it is vital to ensuring the longevity and safety of the battery system. The MBMU needs to be operational at all times to ensure it can monitor and react to any changes in the battery state.
3. **ETH (Ethernet)**: The Ethernet is a key communication component in the BESS. It allows for communication between the different components of the BESS and external systems, facilitating remote monitoring and control of the BESS. Keeping the Ethernet powered is crucial to maintaining communication and control over the BESS.
4. **PCS Control Circuit**: Power Conversion Systems (PCS) are responsible for converting power between alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC), a critical process in a BESS. The control circuit ensures the PCS operates correctly, so it's essential to keep it powered.
5. **Lighting**: Lighting in the BESS container ensures that technicians can safely and effectively perform maintenance or troubleshooting tasks. In a power outage, maintaining lighting is crucial to ensure safety and allow for any necessary manual intervention.
In summary, a UPS system in a BESS container is a crucial component in ensuring the reliability and robustness of the BESS. By providing a backup power source, it ensures the continuous operation of critical and communication equipment, reducing the risk of system failure, and protecting sensitive equipment from power disruptions. A 3kVA UPS, capable of providing power for up to an hour, should be sufficient to meet the auxiliary requirements of the critical equipment in a BESS container.