The energy storage system plays an increasingly important role in solving new energy consumption, enhancing the stability of the power grid, and improving the utilization efficiency of the power distribution system. arouse people's general attention.Its application scale is growing rapidly, and the safety of energy storage power stations has also attracted widespread attention.
There are three lines of defense for energy storage safety. The first is the material safety of the energy storage battery itself. The second is the fire protection design of the system, efficient thermal management, temperature control, early warning and intervention of thermal runaway, through BMS system linkage to cut off the power when thermal runaway occurs. The third is fire safety, effectively blocking the spread of energy storage battery fires, quickly cooling down and efficiently extinguishing fires, and preventing re-ignition.
The energy storage fire protection system is mainly composed of a detection part and a fire extinguishing part, which can realize the automatic detection, alarm and fire extinguishing protection functions of the protection zone or battery storage container. There are three common energy storage container fire protection systems on the market. One is the design idea of total submersion, which uses a gas fire extinguishing system to extinguish the fire; the second uses a gas fire extinguishing system + sprinkler; the third uses a Pack level fire extinguishing solution, and the solution is a fire extinguishing solution designed for each battery pack.
System composition: fire extinguishing device, detection system, fire extinguishing agent delivery pipeline
1.Fire extinguishing device: Usually, the energy storage container fire fighting system will choose the heptafluoropropane fire extinguishing system. Experiments have shown that if the lithium battery catches fire in a closed environment, heptafluoropropane can quickly extinguish the fire and will not re-ignite in a closed environment; ultra-fine dry powder can also quickly extinguish the fire and will not resume Combustion; carbon dioxide can quickly extinguish the fire, but it will re-ignition;
2.Detection system:For lithium battery energy storage containers, we usually design a variety of detectors, such as temperature, smoke, combustible gas, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other detectors, to sense the fire, and activate the fire extinguishing device through a prefabricated algorithm.
3.Fire extinguishing agent delivery pipeline: When the energy storage container fire protection system uses pipe network type heptafluoropropane, special gas pipelines will be used. Usually, the electrical area and the energy storage area will be separated. The electrical area adopts a suspended fire extinguishing device, and the energy storage area adopts a pipe network for formula heptafluoropropane. Arranging multiple nozzles through the pipe network to the protected area can ensure the uniform spraying of the fire extinguishing agent.
Gas fire extinguishing system + sprinkler
Energy storage container fire system design gas fire extinguishing system, while installing sprinkler system, is considered to be the most comprehensive and economical solution in the case of scientific design.The initial fire can be suppressed in time, buying valuable time for the next personnel to deal with it. If the fire is very large, the sprinkler will also be triggered. If the water resources are relatively sufficient, the fire can be completely suppressed normally.If the water resources are insufficient, it can also buy more valuable time for personnel to deal with.When the energy storage container is installed in a remote outdoor area and there is no water resource, there should be an emergency plan on site, such as how to quickly remove the battery on fire, and how to quickly remove the battery on fire. These basic plans and corresponding equipment such as a forklift is a must.
Pack level fire extinguishing solution
It detects and protects each battery pack through composite detectors, pipeline solenoid valves, fire extinguishing device spot spraying and other technologies.The core value point is that electrical fires can be effectively monitored and suppressed at the initial stage.The cost of Pack-level fire extinguishing is relatively high. In energy storage scenarios with a relatively high risk factor, a targeted fire extinguishing scheme is designed.
The construction of the energy storage container fire protection system pays more attention to details. For example, the pressure relief port and emergency start and stop must have sealing measures. If the sealing is not good, there is a risk of short circuit;For example, sound and light and deflated lights must be protected against rain to reduce the risk of electrical short circuits.
Written by Mandy